Age from 4 to 6 years is called preschool. For each age period of development of the child specific features are inherent. The main tasks of preschool education of a child of 5 years are physical, mental, moral, labor and aesthetic development. In addition, this is the time of preparation for school. In the family and in kindergarten, the kid should receive comprehensive harmonious education and adequate preparation for school loads.
Raising a child 4-5 years old
In the fifth year of life, the character of the child changes. The crisis of 3 years has passed, and the baby becomes more obedient, he tries to prove himself on the good side, to be praised and loved, seeks to spend more time with his parents, may even refuse to sleep alone. Raising a child 4-5 years old is an excess of communication with parents. They must answer all his many questions, talk about the world around him, prompt and show by example how to act in certain situations.
At this age, the child develops moral qualities: kindness, generosity, responsiveness, a sense of friendship and duty. Parents should in every way contribute and support the baby in the manifestation of feelings. At the age of 4-5 years, it is time to teach the child to behave in society. For example, to wait for their turn, to share, not to offend animals and other, weaker, children, as well as to defend their interests among peers.
It is important to educate a child of 5 years old to teach him to take into account the needs and needs of other people, so you can not go about all his desires. The kid must learn to put up with the refusals to fulfill his whims.
The tasks of raising and educating the child
The main tasks of raising and educating boys and girls at 4-5 and 6 years old depend on parents and harmony in the family, first of all:
- teach them to communicate in society,
- give as much information and knowledge as possible,
- give thanks for the help and presents,
- respect the elders and not interrupt them during the conversation.
Psychology shows that at this age, love comes out to speak in front of others, a desire to recite poems, dance, sing, so the task of parents is to help and develop the talents of their children.
Behavior and education
Proper education and behavior in the period of 4-5 years develops cognitive activity well. It is necessary to carry out tasks that psychology recommends to try to adhere to certain methods, find time to communicate with the child as often as possible, give him useful information, and teach everything new.
How to establish paternity on a voluntary and compulsory basis?
Now it’s the period when they are interested in everything, many questions arise, therefore dad for a boy, girls can become real "Teacher of life" . Men know a lot of things and can easily give an answer to a child’s question.
Start to form moral qualities : sensitiveness, understanding, kindness, friendship are shown. It is necessary to support and teach the boy and girl to have a positive attitude towards others.
RDressers need to know the psychology of the behavior of boys and girls. at this age and by example, teach them to learn the rules of a culture of behavior with their peers, seniors, perform tasks, learn how to behave properly in public places, how to share toys, where to give in, and where to stand your own way.
Five year old baby mood swings, unpredictability of behavior are characteristic, children become physically and psychologically hardy, can fulfill the tasks of the parent.
Now it’s easy to agree with them, parents should become best friends with them. A good upbringing is laid on love, which should be felt in any situations, even when done a bad thing, you do not need parents to be afraid.
Is always be on the side of your child , trust him, help solve problems, be a support for him in life. Be able to always find an alternative, show understanding, without violating the individuality of a small person.
How to properly raise a child in 4 years of advice
Education should be correct, because this is an important age period for them. The personality traits are fixed and character is formed. A child copies in his life the behavior of his own parents, because adults are a role model for him.
In this period the main thing is to pay a lot of attention, to develop cognitive processes. Psychology offers to give the kid entertaining tasks, to tell a lot, he is interested and well remembered.
Develop some rules in the family and clearly monitor their implementation, for example, a child should be able to clean up after himself, put toys, throw garbage in a bucket, etc. But it is advisable not to forget to praise, to reward with a kiss for the work done.
Raising a child 5-6 years old
At the age of 5-6 years, the behavior of a small person changes dramatically. He is at the turn of preschool and school ages, becoming less impulsive, more restrained, able to defend his opinion. This period is also characterized by an increase in active mental stress, rapid emotional development and awareness of one's own self-esteem. At the age of 5-6, peers begin to play an increasingly important role in the life of a child; interest in the opposite sex may appear.
In how to raise a child 5 years and older, it is important to develop certain rules. Parents should be consistent and adamant in their demands. Their task is to make it clear to the baby what to do and what not to. For this, it is necessary to establish rules that should always be followed, not only for the child, but also for adults. At the same time, parents must justify each of their prohibitions to the baby, talk about the consequences of his actions, if he disobeys. It is impossible to avoid ambiguous situations when a mother today is in a good mood or very tired, and therefore allows her son or daughter to do anything.
At the same time, in raising a child of 5-6 years old one should not overdo it with the number of prohibitions. The child needs a strict framework within which he could feel free. It is important for children to feel their worth and be proactive. Therefore, they should have their own affairs and responsibilities, performing which on their own, they increase self-esteem.
And another important principle on how to raise a child at 5 years old is learning how to make your own decisions. The kid is already able to build an investigative relationship, so the task of parents is to encourage and unobtrusive direction of the child so that he himself comes to the correct conclusion and decision.
Preparation for school
At preschool age, raising a child of 5 years and older also means preparing him for future school activities. It is important to teach him perseverance and patience - those qualities that largely determine the success of the learning process.
At the age of 6, children begin to learn the basics of writing, reading and counting. At this age, many children already know the letters of the alphabet, they can count more than 20. But until that time all this knowledge was obtained during the game, and in elementary school the child will have to receive systematic knowledge every day, follow the recommendations and requests of the teacher. For this he needs to be prepared.
At the age of 6, it is still difficult for the baby to concentrate on a particular subject for more than 10 minutes, this must be taken into account when organizing classes. The program of kindergartens and preparatory classes is usually designed so that the child often switches attention from one type of activity to another. If the parents themselves are engaged in the development of the baby, they should also provide him with this opportunity.
The main thing is the atmosphere in the family
Practicing child psychologists argue that the family is crucial in shaping the personality. Children, starting from the first year of life until reaching school age, fully copy the behavior of parents and their style of relationship with each other. According to the behavior of the child in the circle of peers, one can judge the internal situation in the family and what kind of relations are there between adults. It is important to understand that the baby cannot learn to respect and value others if he does not have a positive sample in front of his eyes from which he could take an example.
In addition to the age characteristics of each of the periods of development, the upbringing of a child of 5 years should vary depending on his gender and the roles of adults in the family. So, the mother should teach the child to find compromises in communication with other people, she gives a feeling of affection and care. Dad is the personification of the protector, law enforcer, teacher and mentor. Children adopt a style of behavior with the opposite sex from their parents and consider it the only correct one, which affects all subsequent life and building relationships in society.
Moral education of the child
The psychology of this age group notes that for the moral development of children, 4 and 5 years old is the most favorable time. Right now, it is easiest to strengthen the concepts of good and evil, honesty and generosity, truth, lies, etc. in a little man.
But, convincing him of the correctness of such norms of behavior, in no case can one be annoying or boring. Use life examples and do not forget about the main motivator - the promotion of positive qualities.
Children try very hard to be “good,” and at the age of 4-5 years it is especially important to use and consolidate these efforts so that they become a habit of doing good. It is very important during this period to teach children to do good things correctly, that is in consultation with parents. It is necessary that children's initiatives evoke positive emotions among people around them, which means that they are joyful for the baby himself.
It’s bad when the child, in his opinion, did something good, and his parents scolded him for it. With frequent repetition of such situations, you can completely discourage the children from the desire to help or delight others. In order to support and develop in crumbs the desire to care, do good, parents need to gently advise, correctly guide their initiatives, tell children different stories with correct and instructive examples. And for this it is necessary to communicate with your own child, find time for joint walks and conversations, enjoy the company of a small person with a rich inner world and unlimited possibilities. After all, you have not yet limited them to your categorization and prohibitions?
We are patient
What is the difference between the psychology of a child 4-5 years old from the psychology of children of a younger age? What advice can parents give to educate their babies to help grow healthy, mentally and physically healthy people? Besides love and wisdom, for this it will take a lot of patience! Here is the key quality that mothers and fathers need in raising children.
First of all, patience will be needed regarding falling asleep toddlers of the fourth year of life, or rather their reluctance to fall asleep alone. The fact is that at this age, children have a heightened sense of love for their parents. They want to be near her mother, play near her or within walking distance from her, even if she is not currently interacting with them.
Try to leave the room where the child is, even if he is busy and does not seem to pay any attention to you. The peanut will leave the game right away and go look for you. For this reason, babies 4-5 years old begin to fear the dark. And if you do not want to jeopardize the nervous system of your beloved child and do not want to turn fear into a disease, do not leave him until he falls asleep. And if the child woke up in the middle of the night and cried or came to you, do not scold, but calm him down and take him to your bed or take him back to the nursery and wait until the child falls asleep. Children's room is the world of the baby. Try to make it as safe and attractive as possible.
Remember: this will not always be, this period will end. Your beloved butuz will grow up and will no longer be afraid of the dark. All that is needed is to show patience, love, understanding and help to survive this difficult period of life.
Want to know everything
What is the difference between the psychology of children aged 4-5 years? Active development of the field of knowledge. This fact should be used as fully as possible for the development of thinking. Right now, kids are asking a lot of questions about objects and phenomena surrounding them. In their minds, causal relationships begin to appear and develop, which should guide correctly and on time. So hurry up to answer all questions as accurately and fully as possible. Do not dismiss your “why-thing”.
Children learn to draw conclusions about the manifestation of various positive and negative actions that they observe in their environment. This is the period when mom and dad can become “life teachers” for the child, unless, of course, they redirect their beloved child to their grandparents, aunts or uncles, and even sadder if to the streets.
Kids in their fourth to fifth years of life ask a lot of questions. Sometimes they ask the same question several times a day. Do not get tired of answering children. Your patience, along with love, will bring up in your child the appropriate qualities of character that will return to you in multiplied form, when you will already ask him the same questions several times, but much later.
The questions that the peanut repeats time after time, and the convincing answers received to them will allow him to better understand and absorb what he heard. Answers must be given truthful and detailed. If you do not reliably know what the baby is asking you about, don’t be afraid to admit it and promise that you will surely look for the answer to his question in books or ask knowledgeable people, and then you will surely tell.
Raising a child 4-5 years old is a very important and crucial period of life for parents and for the baby. Children's psychology pays great attention to this stage of personality development, primarily because it is at this age that children begin to realize their social position in this world. They understand that they are not the center of the universe and their desires are not primary. For the first time they are faced with reflections on what needs to be given in, to sacrifice their well-being for the sake of their neighbor.
At this age, children begin to actively form such important qualities of character as kindness and sensitivity, responsiveness and generosity, a sense of friendship and a sense of duty. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the education of an adequate attitude to society and the world. An optimistic perception of life is characteristic of this period of children's life. In an increasingly complex environment, it must be maintained him and teach the baby in any difficult situations to seek outs. Thus, it is possible to lay the foundations of a person who is socially resistant to any troubles in society.
It’s good to tell the crumb about the rules of behavior in society, in children's groups, in kindergarten, in the family, for a walk in the yard, at a party, in public places, in transport. But it’s even better if you reinforce your words with a personal example: children absorb it much faster than words.
At this time, the child is very malleable, he can be a good student, therefore, he can quickly be taught to give up his place in transport to older people, patiently wait for his turn in games or in the store with his mother, share toys or delicious food, defend his interests and listen to the desires of the neighbor.
How to become a friend to your child
Raising a child 4-5 years of friendliness is a simple task, because the children are very disposed to be friends. With everyone. Especially with parents. Their psychology allows you to happily listen to the advice of elders and try to follow them. It is important to use this period of life for laying the foundations of a long-term friendship with your baby. Remember that friends do not scare, but love, so try to instruct your child through love. Even if the baby does not obey you, he should still feel that he is passionately loved by his parents, regardless of behavior and how old he is. Do not allow irritation in the conversation with him. Carlson's advice is very appropriate in this regard: “Calm! Only calm! ” This is the only way to lay the foundation for a child’s trust in parents.
No need to go to the other extreme, trying to fulfill all the desires of children. So you can turn a child into a little tyrant. If mom and dad for some reason can’t fulfill the desire of the child, then they should definitely try to explain to him for what reason: they are busy, or do not have enough finance, or believe that fulfilling his request will not bring him good or harm others. Children at this age are already able to understand the explanations, so do not be lazy to explain their actions and actions.
Remember: children learn to understand everything that adults do. And the formation of the correct thinking of the child depends on how skillfully the child explains the refusal. Be sure to show the baby the best way out or a replacement for his desire. And when the child agrees to give in, be sure to praise him. But do not always strive to insist on your own. Whenever possible, fulfill the request or desire of the baby, even in excess - so you teach him to make surprises and give love to other people.
Seven John Gray Parent Collaboration Methods
In John Gray's book Children from Heaven, the author lists seven rules for establishing parental cooperation with their children. Here they are:
- It is better to ask, rather than order or demand. It is worth using the following phrases: “Bring (do, say ...), please ...”, “Be kind, ...” etc.
- Do not ask questions in which the recommendation for bad behavior already sounds: “Why are you hitting Petya?”, “Why did you scatter toys around the apartment? ”etc.
- Expressing your requests to the child, speak specifically, using positive words. For example: “Children, please be quiet” instead of “You are too noisy”, “Know how to wait with an answer” instead of “You interrupted me again”.
- So that the baby does not resist your reasonable arguments, try not to remind or repeat to him the truths that he already knows well. For example, instead of explaining the importance of brushing your teeth, unobtrusively suggest to the baby: “Would you brush your teeth?”
- Let your explanations not become lectures: children perceive them poorly and lose their desire to cooperate with adults. It is much better if you encourage your child to ask you questions before you do something.
- Do not share your negative experiences with children, because they begin to feel their responsibility for your mood, which they still cannot fully bear. Avoid phrases like: “I don't like ...” or “You really upset me ...”.
- The best word for collaboration at this age is the word “come on”. It strengthens the natural bonds between parents and their children.
Love, appreciate and understand your child. After all, you were already children, and they are adults - not yet. That is, they do not have your experience. Let them acquire it as they grow older, and not with your words, and even at 4 or 5 years. For a child, this is an excessive burden.
Proper parenting counseling psychologist
Age needs directly determine the psychology of the correct education of preschool children.
Parent Tips from professionals in this field:
- Remember that the full development of crumbs is possible only in an atmosphere of absolute love and security.
- The maximum educational effect from the activity of the baby is achieved only in the case of tangible success.
- Frequent refusals to answer questions of a little why in childhood are formed by the child’s unwillingness to share with the parents the sacred in older adulthood.
- In order to protect oneself from active resistance on the part of the preschooler, the educational process must be open.
Difficulties in raising a child 4 5 and 6 years old
A feature of the psychology of this age group is the crisis of social relations. But, given the above, the formation of a model of relations with society through “bad” behavior for 4-6 years is the norm.
In this way, the preschooler builds the boundaries of his own territory, trying to be more independent and free.
Parents need, without unnecessary nervousness, to accept their child as it is, to enable them to do things themselves and bear responsibility for them, establish joint rules with the baby and not allow him to go beyond what is permitted.
Important tasks of raising a child
- develop communication skills,
- to inculcate norms and rules of behavior in society,
- promote the development of self-control in behavior,
- develop mental abilities and cravings for knowledge,
- to notice in time the interests of the child and the propensity for this or that activity to help him in the development of talent,
- find the middle ground between the game and the time for training sessions,
- the upbringing of a child of 4 years old should still be filled with your care and love for him, because he spends a lot of time in kindergarten, and he obviously does not have enough attention.
Why does the crisis come in 5 years?
With normal development by the age of five, the baby is not talking badly and is able to talk about his needs. The child really wants to seem big, to be like adults. You can often watch him peep or eavesdrop on their conversations, he is also interested in being in a circle of peers.
The brain is already quite developed, and the baby is able to control his emotions. He understands that boys and girls are different. At this age, a child tends to show imagination and have his own opinion about the world around him. This period is characterized by the most striking manifestation of character traits.
Children are interested in everything that happens around them, they can even tell fictional stories. At the age of 5 years, it is important for the child to communicate with other children, but he does not always achieve this, because of which he may find himself alone. Sometimes he simply does not have the opportunity to talk to someone about it.
All this can cause a crisis in which the child becomes too capricious and hysterical. So that the baby does not become isolated and easily survived the crisis, he should be in conditions comfortable for him and always feel the support of adults.
How long can a crisis last?
It is impossible to predict exactly when the difficult period will come. It can last from several weeks to several months, it all depends on the individual characteristics of each child. However, there is no need to give up, give the baby time, give him support, surround him with care and love. In difficult moments, the child especially needs your attention and affection.
Signs of the onset of the crisis
The crisis of five years has distinctive features by which it can be distinguished from other crises in the life of a child:
- if the baby suddenly became less talkative, withdrawn, stopped sharing with you joy for his successes and achievements, although he did it before,
- if the child is insecure, looks scared, afraid of everything new and unknown,
- the baby is annoyed and angry over trifles, speaks rudely with adults or with his peers (for example, may get angry if you did not give him your favorite toy),
- the child began to throw tantrums over trifles, cry and be capricious for a long time (for example, he may be annoyed by the fact that he is forced to sleep in the daytime),
- too often, the child copies the manners of adults and grimaces (depicts mom in the process of cooking or cleaning, or how dad repairs something),
- the baby defends its independence, wants to be on a par with adults, requires more freedom (expresses a desire that parents do not walk with him on the street).
What does Dr. Komarovsky advise?
In this difficult period for the baby, Dr. Komarovsky urges parents to act gently, but at the same time, persistently. The biggest mistake adults make is to threaten and punish the baby when he is capricious. This is not a way out of this situation. Komarovsky recommends following these tips:
- find out the reason for this behavior, maybe the child just does not have enough of your attention,
- create a comfortable and relaxing environment
- try to find out the problem that the child has encountered and offer to solve it together,
- never show your anger and annoyance
- Do not scold or shout at the baby during whims and tantrums, wait until he calms down, and calmly talk to him.
During a crisis, it is important to maintain a warm relationship with your baby and not lose his trust. If mutual understanding prevails between you, it will be much easier for both of you to overcome this difficult period in life.
Attention and care will help to establish a warm relationship with the child.
What should parents do?
Parents often do not know what to do in such a situation. You just need to follow some rules, and you will achieve a positive result. First, you need to find out the cause of the crisis:
- the child wants to seem like an adult, but he doesn’t get it,
- at the age of five, children try to learn how to control their emotions,
- kids begin to understand the difference between the opposite sex,
- children fantasize, and they have a different opinion about life.
Parents must adhere to the following rules:
- Pay more attention to the child: communicate, ask with interest about his affairs, do not forget to talk about yourself.
- Be sure to explain to the baby so that it becomes clear to you why you are doing something (for example, you have to go to bed during the day, as this is good for your health).
- If the child shows aggression and fights, talk with him about what is inadmissible to do so (we recommend reading: how to cope with aggression in a child of 5 years old?).
It is important for the baby to know that you have serious intentions, and you talk with him on an equal footing. Spend a lot of time with him, participate in joint games, imagine yourself also a small child. Try to give him a little more freedom without showing your excitement for him. Accustom the kid to the performance of adult duties, gradually shifting some of them to him.
If the child does not need your help, it is better not to meddle in his affairs. Do not forbid him to do difficult things, let him understand that he was wrong and did not heed the advice of adults in vain. Give your baby support and do not forget to praise him. Close your eyes to the vagaries of the child, antics and imitation of adults. If you do not focus on such behavior, it will not go back to normal.
According to psychologists, the most important thing during the crisis in children of five years of age is to surround the child with love and care. Set a good example for your baby.
How to behave with a child at 6 years old?
If a child by the age of 6 has not yet gone to school, it is necessary to mentally prepare him for it. Your task is to tell him how to behave properly in school, what daily routine awaits him. If you have the opportunity, you can introduce the child to his future teacher. Show him which way is best to get to school.
If the child is already attending school, do not forget to praise him for good grades and new achievements. Let him see that you are proud of him and do not doubt his abilities. Ask him with interest, how was the next day at school, what did he learn new in the classroom? Give an adequate assessment of his actions. If it seemed to you that the baby could not cope with something, gently tell him about it. In the future, the child will try to prevent such mistakes.
Discuss with your child the opportunity to visit a club that interests him or some sports section. At this time, the baby seeks new knowledge, he pays special attention to the educational process. It is important for him to know that he is engaged in important matters and to feel that those around him need him. Children who are active, achieve success in sports or are endowed with other talents deserve respect in the eyes of their peers. During a crisis, it is very important for a child to communicate and maintain friendship with peers.
Actions Parents Should Not Take
In a difficult period for the baby, parents are strictly forbidden to perform the following actions:
- Do not break your anger on the child and do not show rude attitude. It is necessary to conduct a conversation with him in a calm atmosphere about why he did the wrong thing.
- If a child behaves rudely, you need to explain to him that such behavior is unacceptable. You can even not fundamentally talk to him so that he feels how much he offends you with such behavior.
- If the kid repeats an abusive word for someone, do not scold him. Try to interpret how bad it is to use this word, or just don’t pay attention to it, and the child will no longer remember about it.
- We must act immediately. If you see that the baby needs your help, immediately give it, and your affairs will not go anywhere.
The child should feel that he occupies a central place in the life of his parents, that you always have time for him. Let the baby know how much you need him, and you will never leave him in a difficult situation.
Physical features of development
The age of 4–5 years is a new and important transitional stage of the child, which can be described as a period of intensive growth and development. It leads to a change in character, improvement of cognitive and communicative abilities.
Physical formation is formed harmoniously and is expressed by rapid growth and development:
- Children of any age are peculiar and necessary movement.
- The physical abilities of babies are increasing. Moreover, significantly. In particular, a marked improvement in coordination. And in general, their movements look more confident. These two factors are noticeable even from the outside.
- There is a development of motor skills.
- Agility and speed of the main part of children at this age can be envied.
- Normally, the increase in growth should be from 5 to 7 cm. In weight, up to 2 kg.
- The skeleton is very flexible, because the process of ossification is not finished yet. Therefore, there can be no question of any kind of strength exercises.
- A feature of the activity of the heart is that its rhythm is quickly broken. Outwardly, this can be seen by redness or blanching of the face, rapid breathing, movements with poor coordination, etc.
- The child’s brain very quickly establishes conditioned reflex connections.
- The kid at this age is especially sensitive to noise. The reason is that the eardrum is very tender and easy to injure.
- The age of 4-5 years is a truly golden time for the development of sensory abilities.
- Educational measures aimed at nervous processes are becoming more effective.
- Such a thing as conditional inhibition is difficult to form. That is, in the case of a ban on any action, the child will not be able to figure it out right away. It is necessary to constantly fix this with him at this age.
That is, just wake up the baby and send him to sleep at the same time every day. And then move on to other useful actions.
Mental development of the child
A kid of this age has a good development of psychomotor skills. He can walk for a long time, explore the world. His ability to do something with his hands is being improved more and more.
Children show amazing dexterity in carrying out any tasks and are interested in everything that surrounds them:
- strive to be independent,
- show sensitivity to others, apply ethical skills,
- actively demonstrate their rich imagination and creative abilities (such an unlimited imagination can also give rise to children's fears),
- socially oriented to family and peers,
- complicate the process of gaming activity,
- curious about everything that surrounds
- emotionally susceptible and vulnerable
- have an interest in gender.
In games, children's imagination develops. Games are already role-playing, modeling, group.
Now kids can have fun without the help of adults, on their own.
They usually come up with rather complicated plots in advance, distribute roles, determine the rules, and strictly monitor their implementation.
That is, the kid gets a lot of skills through the game. He learns to communicate with peers, seeks to keep emotions under control, follow the rules (in this case, the rules of the game, then it will come in handy in life).
Often children copy adults in their games. Children discover the world of human relations, the social functions of people, various types of their activities.
Each parent wants to see their baby, including those with a highly developed aesthetic feeling.
A person with an independent, open mind, always achieves the goals that he set for himself.
This is impossible without the development of his creativity. You need to do this as soon as possible.
The kid at this age gradually becomes able to master (not immediately, but little by little) the coordination of small hand movements, visual control. This gives him the opportunity to improve his abilities in visual activity. For example, the bulk of the kids draw with great desire, because coordination between visual and motor perception is a huge achievement for a person of such a young age.
From the point of view of psychology, drawing is an important preparatory part of writing and can say a lot about how the baby perceives the world.
A child may have a tendency to sing, dance, and be attracted to non-standard types of creative activity (for example, cooking or the exact sciences).
Such a jump in development, which is in children of this age, would be hardly possible without a gradual mastery of the art of speech.
And he not only actively learns new words, but also invents them himself.
At this age, the vast majority of children use almost all parts of speech, respectively, its vocabulary increases significantly.
Thanks to this, he perceives this world more meaningfully, purposefully analyzing.
How do babies communicate? Other than with adults. The first thing that catches your eye is increased emotionality. They rarely can speak normally. They scream, laugh, squeal, rush, and at the same time choke with delight. For adults, such reactions are often incomprehensible.
Therefore, the bulk of children, especially this age period, behave more relaxed and freer with their peers. In the communication of peers, one can observe more feelings, expressive-mimic manifestations, than when referring to adults.
Show your baby how to initiate communication
In communication with adults, children try to adhere to at least relative norms, decencies. In communication with each other, for example, they often use sometimes completely unexpected sounds, fables, words.
For example, to help a child and introduce him into the circle of other children by saying: “Hello guys! Our name is Katya and Masha, let's play together. ” In the future, the child will learn how to get acquainted and communicate.
A child at this age is a small person who has a sufficiently developed and diverse spectrum of emotions. His feelings are more related to the atmosphere in his family. His emotions and needs are gradually complicated with the advent of new skills. A preschooler can express feelings with different intonations and facial expressions.
Teaching children 4-5 years old
Some are confident that the baby should be developed almost from the first days after he was born, while others think that childhood is for that and childhood, and require almost nothing from their children.
And it is only for parents to decide which side in this dispute to take.
4-5 years old is a very interesting age. And this is not only a positive quality of this period of life. For example, children have fears. One of them is the fear of darkness or loneliness. Parents should always sensitively and carefully analyze the behavior and development of the child in order to help him overcome all difficulties at a difficult moment and return his development in the right direction on time.
Features of the development of children 4-5 years old
- Fine motor skills develop more actively than before, the child more skillfully uses pencils, a brush, a pen and other accessories for creative and educational activities.
- The child plays a lot of time with peers, communicates with them.
- Strong cognitive interest develops. The kid seeks to find out everything, asks many questions to adults. He actively absorbs new information.
- The child controls his body well and coordinates movements.
- At this age, children almost no longer need a day's sleep. In kindergarten, this remains a necessity, and they obey those requirements. But at home, most children no longer sleep during the day.
- A child of 4-5 years old knows basic geometric shapes, numbers from 0 to 9, collects simple puzzles, finds similarities and differences between two objects, calls a group of objects a generalizing word, knows basic professions, knows how to ask questions correctly, can retell the contents of a fairy tale or recite by heart a simple poem, knows how to accurately paint pictures.
How to raise a child in 4-5 years?
- Develop the desire for knowledge: observe what is interesting to the child, tell him about the world around him, answer his questions, watch useful programs together. In no case do not dismiss communication with your “why-thing”, no matter how strange his questions may seem. Answer everything in a language that he understands. Try not to say “I don’t know”, it’s better instead (if the question baffles you) to say: “Let's figure it out together” and, looking at authoritative sources, give an answer.
- Praise the child for the desire to know the world, for its conclusions. If, as you think, he made the wrong conclusions, do not criticize or ridicule him. It’s better to give him the opportunity to think more and correct his conclusions with leading questions, for example: “Do you really think that ...?”, “Do you remember, you and I read that ...? So ... ”, etc.
- This age is considered favorable in order to send the child to some kind of sports section or dance studio based on his preferences. Such classes will help him make up for a possible lack of physical activity, realize his abilities and form useful hobbies.
- Control how the child learns the rules of behavior. Calmly, without shouting and threats, point him to a situation where he is "acting badly" and how to behave.
- Encourage your child to be in a good mood. If you notice that he is sad or is silent for a long time, do not ignore this behavior, try to find out its cause. Do not forget to voice feelings (help your child to understand and say them): “I see that you are upset with something (sad, scared ...)”, “You are thoughtful today. Can you share your thoughts? ”Play with your child, laugh, dance, offer him what he loves. It is important to form an optimistic view of the world in children.
- Do not ask rhetorical questions and do not state the facts of “bad” behavior in the style of: “Why are you breaking everything?” Or “You have scattered toys again”. Such statements do not encourage the child to correct his actions. Instead, use specific requests: “Speak please, be quiet” or motivating phrases: “Let's remove the toys and then we can go for a walk faster”.
- It is important to communicate a lot with the child on the topic of friendship, kindness, honesty, generosity and responsiveness, developing these qualities in him. Use including poems, short stories, cartoons and role-playing games.
- Give the child tasks and encourage him to carry them out carefully and bring them to the end. If you started to draw, then you need to finish it, if it removes toys or any accessories, then in its place, if it performs some exercises, then without distraction. It is better to alternate classes with different types of activities, but at the same time complete each of them qualitatively and to the end. It develops perseverance.
- Encourage your child in cultural life. Go together to performances, exhibitions, children's shows, Christmas trees. Actively discuss with him all the events, ask what he liked, where he would like to go again.
- Remember the personal example. The child understands your actions and habits very well and adopts them. Therefore, do not allow contradictions in what you say to him and how you behave yourself. This is one of the most important principles in the question of how to properly raise a child at any age.
Games and toys at 4-5 years old
Involve children of this age in outdoor outdoor games, including sports, role-playing and board games at home. Various designers, puzzles, blocks for learning to read, dolls and cars of different brands.
Coloring books, kits for creativity, which are now very much on sale, will also please the child. Bike, scooter, skating, skiing are very useful assets for outdoor activities. And, of course, do not forget to read books together daily, discuss their contents, retell, and learn poems.
Despite the fact that your baby becomes less impulsive and his learning abilities increase every day, he still remains a child who needs a game, active work and your attention. Remember that you can’t take his childhood ahead of time.