Cystitis in men - symptoms and treatment at home

Cystitis is an inflammatory disease consisting in irritation and damage to the walls of the bladder.

In fact, women often suffer from cystitis. About 2-3 out of 10 women at least once in their life suffer from this disease. In males, only 1% have cystitis in any form. In most cases, these are men over 45 years old.

The difference in the frequency of diseases between the sexes is due to physiological differences in the structure of their urogenital organs. First of all, men have a very long and sinuous urethra. But the walls of the urethra are an extremely difficult obstacle for pathogenic microorganisms, since immune cells are active in them.

In addition, in the male body, the opening of the urethra is very far from the anus, so pathogenic microflora from the anus is practically excluded from entering the canal.

Anatomical information

The bladder is one of the main organs of the urinary system, designed to collect and remove urine. In the last process, an important role is played by the walls of the organ, which have a muscle base, and due to this are able to stretch.

However, the mucous membrane of the bladder is often injured or exposed to infectious agents. This leads to various diseases. The lower part of the bladder is called the neck. The urethra (urethra) comes out of the neck. Two ureters flow into the upper part - channels through which urine comes from the kidneys.

What is cystitis in men?

Cystitis in men - This is an inflammation of the urinary tract, as a result of which the mucous membrane of the bladder is affected, its functions are disturbed. The manifestations of the disease are pain in the suprapubic region, painful urination, the presence of impurities in the urine. In the photo, male cystitis is usually depicted as inflamed bladder walls. The disease is not transmitted from man to woman during sexual intercourse (only pathogens that provoked its development can be transmitted).

It should be noted that the prevalence of this problem among men is several times lower than among women. According to statistics, the disease is diagnosed by urologists in only 0.5% of representatives of the strong half of humanity. The atypical pathology for men is explained by the structural features of the male urethra - it is much more difficult to get into the bladder along the long, narrow and curved urethra of the infection.

Types of Male Cystitis

In urology, it is customary to distinguish:

1. Primary cystitis (acute, chronic lesions of the bladder). May have post-traumatic, infectious and parasitic etiology. In turn, acute cystitis is:

- infectious (specific, non-specific),

- caused by medicinal, thermal, toxic, chemical, alimentary factors,

2. Secondary cystitis. Usually are chronic. They are a consequence of the urological pathology of extravesical / cystic localization.

According to the prevalence criterion, male cystitis is usually classified into:

According to the endoscopic picture and clinical and morphological changes, male cystitis can be of the following different forms:

  • granulation
  • catarrhal
  • ulcerative
  • fibrinous
  • gangrenous
  • phlegmonous
  • cystic
  • necrotic
  • polypous
  • interstitial
  • inlaid.

Classification

The disease has its own varieties, based on the types of provoking factors, the type of course. If we consider the possible consequences of the development of cystitis, then distinguish:

  1. Primary. It is characterized by independent development, that is, the reasons are not associated with pathological processes in the body. For example, taking medications, chemical, toxic effects and so on.
  2. Secondary. Problems are formed already subsequently the course of a particular pathology in the body. Localization of the focus can be outside the cystic or cystic.

There are divisions into bacterial and non-bacterial cystitis. In the first case, the disease develops due to the ingestion of pathological microorganisms on the mucous membrane of the organ, and for non-bacterial infections, the infection does not directly penetrate the tissues of the bladder, inflammation appears in connection with other influences.

The bladder can be affected with different structural changes in the tissues, which underlies the division of diseases into one of the corresponding species. It can be hemorrhagic, catarrhal, interstitial, granulomatous, ulcerative and one of the dangerous conditions - gangrenous and phlegmic cystitis.

Causes

Why does cystitis occur in men, and what is it? Most often, it is the infection that causes cystitis. Bacteria penetrate into the bladder, mainly in an ascending way, that is, from the urethra, prostate gland, testicle or epididymis, seminal vesicles.

In men, the urethra is quite long, narrow and curved. In addition, the mucous membrane and epithelium of the bladder of men can independently resist microbes. This explains the rarity of the disease in the stronger sex.

  1. Infectious cystitis in men, as a rule, develops against the background of urethritis, prostatitis, orchitis, vesiculitis, epididymitis.
  2. Specific cystitis is caused by mycoplasmas, chlamydia, trichomonads, tuberculosis mycobacteria, gonococcus.
  3. Very rarely, cystitis accompanies diseases such as purpura, actinomycosis, and schistosomiasis.

Other factors that increase the likelihood of developing cystitis in men include diabetes mellitus, spinal injuries, transurethral surgery (resection of the prostate, urethral, ​​bladder tumors), stress, hypothermia, alcohol abuse, and spicy foods.

Causes of cystitis in men

The main cause of cystitis in men is inflammation, which occurs due to the penetration of the infection into the mucosa, but there are cases of a non-infectious nature if, after catheterization of the bladder, inflammation occurs due to irritation of the mucosa.

The appearance of cystitis in men is a not very common phenomenon and occurs hundreds of times less often than in the fairer sex.

The reason for the gender difference in the prevalence of the disease is the different length of the path through which the infection penetrates the bladder.

Since the male urethra is longer than the female urethra due to its terminal portion in the penis, the distance and many winding sections create obstacles for the invasion of pathogenic organisms from the environment or the urethra.

For men, the most common pathway for microbes to enter a place of urine accumulation passes through the upper parts of the excretory system or through the bloodstream. But infectious prostatitis is not excluded as a cause of pathology.

Statistics of male cystitis indicates its occurrence in men is approximately 0.5%.

Men under the age of 40 rarely find this disease in themselves, and older people increase the likelihood of its occurrence.

Causes of Male Cystitis

The most common causes of cystitis in men include:

  • urological diseases leading to stagnation of urine, infravesical obstruction,
  • mechanical obstacles blocking the free flow of urine (bladder stones, foreign bodies, diverticula, tumors),
  • phimosis
  • neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

Infectious male cystitis can occur due to:

The causative agents of the disease are Klebsiella, St. saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Candida, Trichomonas, E.coli, Mycoplasma, Gonococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia, etc.

Infectious cystitis can develop in different ways:

  • ascending (the pathogen enters the bladder from the prostate gland, urethra, testis, epididymis),
  • lymphogenous
  • descending (occurs with tuberculosis of the kidneys, pyonephrosis, pyelonephritis),
  • direct (signs of cystitis in a man appear after endourological procedures, abscess of the prostate gland),
  • hematogenous (provocateurs of the disease are distant purulent foci formed due to sinusitis, tonsillitis, furunculosis, pulpitis, etc.).

Why do men rarely get cystitis?

In men, cystitis is relatively rare due to the special structure of the lower parts of the urinary system: they have a long and convoluted urethra, which in most cases prevents the infection from penetrating directly into the bladder.

Under normal conditions, even if the infection enters the urethra, it is partially washed out by a stream of urine, and the rest is destroyed by the cells of the immune system before the infection reaches the bladder.

In men, cystitis in most cases occurs when immunity decreases, congestion in the bladder occurs or pathogens infect it in large numbers.

General information

The prevalence of cystitis among men is much lower than among women. In practical urology, cystitis is diagnosed in 0.5% of men, mostly older than 40 years. The low incidence is due to the characteristics of the male urethra: a long, narrow, curved urethra in most cases delays the infection and prevents its entry into the bladder. The development of cystitis in men is more often caused by infravesical obstruction - subbubble compression of the urinary tract (at the level of the urethra or neck of the bladder), which prevents the free outflow of urine.

Causes of cystitis in men

Doctors distinguish two main forms of this disease in men - acute and chronic. The clinical picture is pronounced in the acute form, and chronic cystitis can occur for years with little or no symptoms.

Factors that can cause the disease:

  • allergic reactions
  • infections of the ureters and kidneys,
  • entry of mycobacterium tuberculosis into the bladder,
  • chronic foci of infection in the body,
  • sepsis,
  • genital infections
  • prostatitis and urethritis,
  • exposure to radiation.

Hypothermia of the body is the main factor in the development of cystitis in men. Often this pathology is encountered by men suffering from cancer or prostate adenoma.

The causative agent of acute cystitis is Proteus. Pathology can also occur under the influence of Escherichia coli, cocci and other infections.

Signs of the disease

The first signs of cystitis in men can be detected independently, for this disease is characteristic:

Treatment of cystitis with antibiotics does not need to be postponed, as this is fraught with consequences and can lead to complications in the form of inflammation of the fiber near the bladder, cause a decrease in the size of the bladder itself, urinary incontinence and pyelonephritis.

Why does cystitis appear?

We distinguish the main causative agents of bladder inflammation:

  • E. coli
  • yeast-like fungi
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • staphylococcus

The disease can affect a man at absolutely any age, even in childhood and adolescence. One of the common reasons this can happen is because personal hygiene is not properly followed. Proper observance of intimate hygiene rules is the basis of preventive measures.

Why do men have cystitis? Sometimes the disease develops against the background of prostatitis or prostate adenoma. In some cases, disorders of the genitourinary system become provocateurs of the pathological process in the bladder.

Urolithiasis, urethral structure, chronic genital infections - all this can serve as an impetus to the development of the pathological process. Symptoms of cystitis can occur in men after prolonged exposure to cold.

Consider other causes of cystitis in men:

  • taking hormones
  • pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of the kidneys,
  • infectious and viral diseases. In this case, pathogens are introduced into the bladder by the hematogenous route,
  • infection by catheterization or cystoscopy,
  • abdominal injuries
  • diabetes,
  • constant stressful situations.

Signs of cystitis in men

Acute cystitis makes itself felt, first of all, with acute pain during urination, sometimes radiating to the rectum. Pain is especially severe at the beginning and end of urination. In addition, symptoms of cystitis include pain in the lower abdomen, above the pubis, independent of urination, however, this process intensifies. The amount of emitted urine can be extremely small (10-15 ml), however, the number of urges to urinate can reach several times per hour. After the act of urination, there is a feeling that the bladder is not completely empty. Also, with cystitis, there are often such signs as urinary incontinence, peremptory urge to urinate. An exacerbation of the disease is often accompanied by fever, signs of intoxication (malaise, headache).

Other symptoms of cystitis:

  • discoloration of urine
  • blood, mucus, pus or protein in the urine,
  • unpleasant urine odor.

Often, with the disease, urine reflux occurs. This is the name of the process in which urine goes back to the ureters, and then to the kidneys, which leads to pyelonephritis.

If untreated, acute cystitis transforms into a chronic form. For chronic cystitis, in turn, exacerbations (about 2-3 times a year) are followed by periods of remission. During remission, the symptoms of the disease practically do not appear.

Interstitial cystitis is a severe form of chronic cystitis. With this type of disease, exacerbations occur extremely often, and the patient has constant pain in the groin area.

Is cystitis transmitted to men?

The household route of transmission of cystitis to men is excluded. Therefore, it is not necessary to be afraid to use a common towel, bedclothes and utensils with a sick person, if, according to hygienic rules and principles in the joint use of household items, this does not abhor.

Transmission of cystitis from a sick woman to a man does not occur during sexual intercourse, but the infectious agents that caused the development of the disease can enter the man’s urethra.

On an ascending pathway, infection can enter the bladder and cause inflammation of its mucous membrane. For this reason, doctors are not encouraged by men to have sex with sick women.

Symptoms and first signs of cystitis

Consider the symptoms characteristic of acute cystitis:

  • frequent urination,
  • poor urine output
  • false urge to urinate
  • urination is observed at night,
  • urine becomes cloudy, an unpleasant odor appears. Impurities of pus and blood appear in urine,
  • occasional urinary incontinence
  • difficulty urinating, you have to make an effort,
  • severe pain brings the beginning and end of urination,
  • pain occurs in the penis, groin and pubis,
  • Signs of general intoxication: fever, increased sweating, chills, headache, weakness, decreased performance, pain in the joints and muscles.

The chronic form, in comparison with the acute, is characterized by the appearance of less pronounced clinical symptoms.For chronic cystitis, the following is characteristic:

  • mild soreness,
  • minor urination disorders,
  • normal general health.

Chronic cystitis is of three types:

  • asymptomatic
  • persistent
  • interstitial.

The latent form is not accompanied by symptoms at all, and it can be detected by changes in the analysis of urine. Latent cystitis is characterized by rare periods of exacerbation. Persistent cystitis worsens several times a year.

But if we are talking about interstitial cystitis, then it is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination of a constant nature,
  • persistent and persistent pain in the suprapubic zone,
  • depression, irritability, anxiety.

The most serious complication of cystitis is the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux. The essence of this pathological process is the throwing of urine from the bladder back into the ureters. In addition, the infectious process can spread along the ascending path, leading to the appearance of pyelonephritis. And inflammation of the sphincter of the bladder causes acute urinary retention.

Symptoms of cystitis in men

With the development of acute cystitis, there are symptoms that a man should pay special attention to - frequent trips to the toilet for little need. If urination is accompanied by pain and difficulty, and the urine itself becomes cloudy - this is an occasion to contact a urologist and be examined.

So, the main symptoms of cystitis in men are:

  • it becomes painful to urinate, there is a burning sensation and pain over the pubis,
  • frequent urination, but it’s not always possible to pee
  • urine is excreted in small portions, blood may be released at the end,
  • there are signs of intoxication: weakness, fatigue, headache, decreased appetite,
  • pain or discomfort over the pubis may appear outside the act of urination,
  • sometimes urine is released involuntarily, but in a small amount,
  • urine becomes cloudy, a flocculent precipitate falls in it, an unpleasant odor can be felt,
  • body temperature may rise.

Complaints persist for 10-14 days, after which, in the absence of treatment, the acute form of cystitis can become chronic, when there are either no symptoms at all, or they are weak, but they are weak.

Diagnostics

If there are signs with a high degree of probability indicating cystitis, you should contact a urologist. At the initial examination, the doctor usually examines the patient's genitals and examines the prostate gland by palpation in the anus. This allows you to establish or exclude the relationship of cystitis in men with other diseases of the male genital organs.

Diagnosis is mainly by general urine analysis. Cystitis can be detected due to its high white blood cell count. Sometimes the determining sign may be the presence of red blood cells, bacteria, epithelial cells, protozoa. Also made:

  • general and biochemical blood test,
  • urine analysis according to Nechiporenko,
  • urine culture to detect an infectious agent.

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is performed if a sexually transmitted infection is suspected.

The ultrasound technique of the bladder is ineffective, since it requires a full bladder, and with this disease the patient is unable to fill it. Nevertheless, ultrasound of the kidneys and prostate can be useful, as it helps to identify concomitant diseases. Procedures such as cystoscopy, urodynamic studies, uroflowgraphy (a study of the speed parameters of the passage of urine through the urethra), and MRI are performed. Cystoscopy is a type of endoscopic examination. It helps to identify stones and neoplasms in the bladder, as well as take a biopsy for analysis.

Cystitis must be differentiated from diseases such as bladder and prostate tumors.

Is cystitis transmitted from woman to man

There is such a prejudice that with a sexual partner who has cystitis, you should not have sex because of the likelihood of becoming infected. But is it really so? According to experts, cystitis is not a sexually transmitted disease. But why is there such a belief?

In general, it is difficult to answer this question clearly. In many respects, the answer depends on the immediate cause of the pathological process. In the event that the disease has developed under the influence of ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydia or gonorrhea pathogens, then conditionally cystitis can be considered a contagious disease.

If a man has a weakened immune system, infection can easily enter his body and there are risks of cystitis in the future. If a woman, in addition to inflammation of the bladder, has, for example, bacterial vaginosis or colpitis, then a man has all the “chances” to catch pathogens.

Most bacterial infections are associated with poor sexual hygiene. Especially, this applies to those cases when vaginal sex was preceded by anal.

Doctors do not recommend having sex with cystitis. During intercourse, symptoms such as burning and itching will only increase. With active sexual activity, treatment of a developing inflammatory process will be somewhat difficult.

Despite the fact that cystitis is not a contagious disease, the condition after intimacy can be exacerbated.

Cystitis: what is it in men

Cystitis is an inflammatory disease consisting in irritation and damage to the walls of the bladder. In fact, women often suffer from cystitis. About 2-3 out of 10 women at least once in their life suffer from this disease. In males, only 1% have cystitis in any form. In most cases, these are men over 45 years old. The difference in the frequency of diseases between the sexes is due to physiological differences in the structure of their urogenital organs. First of all, men have a very long and sinuous urethra. But the walls of the urethra are an extremely difficult obstacle for pathogenic microorganisms, since immune cells are active in them. In addition, in the male body, the opening of the urethra is very far from the anus, so pathogenic microflora from the anus is practically excluded from entering the canal.

However, infection can enter the bladder not only from the outside through the urethra. In some cases, cystitis in men is a consequence of kidney or prostate diseases.

Generally speaking, cystitis does not always have an infectious nature. However, if we are talking about infectious cystitis, then most often it is bacterial cystitis, less often fungal. Even less commonly, cystitis is caused by multicellular parasites.

Most often, infectious cystitis occurs as a result of the action of E. coli (80%). The causative agents of the disease can also be:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • staphylococcus
  • Proteus,
  • gonococcus
  • chlamydia
  • Trichomonas
  • mycoplasmas.

Signs of acute cystitis

In acute cystitis in men, the factors causing the disease are diverse: hypothermia, mucosal injury, infectious agents.

Clinical signs of the disease are expressed by dysuria (impaired emptying), hematuria (the content of blood cells in the urine) and leukocyturia (the presence of purulent masses in urine).

The appearance of blood elements in urine is not a prerequisite for the ongoing pathology. Symptom may be absent or appear later than other symptoms.

In addition to the main signs, a series of additional, non-specific signs of the disease is found:

  • burning pains at the initial and final stages of emptying,
  • urinary incontinence at night,
  • frequent and mild emptying.

Algorithm for the progress of cystitis in men proceeds similarly for all varieties of pathology.

  1. The onset of pathology can be suspected of frequent emptying in small portions. The interval between urinary acts is sometimes reduced to 15 minutes.
  2. The urge to urinate becomes more frequent, during the peak of the disease, the urge does not disappear at all, which becomes the cause of nighttime urinary incontinence.
  3. The beginning and end of the emptying become unbearable from severe pain, the entire process of emptying is accompanied by cutting pain. For children, the urination period is the most problematic, as severe pain does not allow the child to empty completely.
  4. If at the next stage traces of blood appear in urine, then the diagnosis is obvious - hemorrhagic cystitis.

The correct treatment of a patient with acute cystitis ensures the absence of relapse, which occurs in half of sick men several months after the first course of pathology.

IMPORTANT TO KNOW: What is candidal cystitis, features of the treatment of the disease.

Acute and chronic

According to the nature of the course of the disease, cystitis is:

Acute cystitis is divided into:

  • first arisen
  • rarely occurring (1 time during the year or less),
  • arising often (annually from 2 times and more often).

After recovery from acute cystitis, all laboratory parameters and data obtained by instrumental methods do not differ from the norm.

Chronic cystitis, in turn, is of the following types:

1. Leaking asymptomatic (latent), which has:

  • stable asymptomatic course (such cystitis can be detected only on the basis of data from endoscopic studies),
  • rare periods of exacerbation,
  • exacerbations 2 or more times a year.

The period of exacerbation of the latent course resembles a picture of acute or subacute cystitis.

2. Persistent cystitis. Usually aggravated 2-3 times a year, laboratory-instrumental examination data obtained indicate the presence of an inflammatory process.

3. Interstitial cystitis. The most severe form of chronic cystitis, characterized by frequent exacerbations, almost constant pain in the bladder, progressive changes in its walls.

It is interesting that when it comes to acute or chronic cystitis, its appearance determines the nature of the revealed changes in the bladder mucosa more than the frequency of exacerbation during the year.

How to treat cystitis in men at home

In order to prevent inflammation of the bladder, the prevention of cystitis in men is important. If you still could not protect yourself and the first signs of the disease appeared, then you need to visit a specialist soon. Therapy is prescribed only after the urologist collects a complete medical history and conducts an examination. Acute cystitis, accompanied by severe pain and persistent urinary retention, will require in-patient treatment and a detailed study of the processes occurring in the body to determine the type of pathogen.

The following medications and procedures are recommended as a general treatment regimen for cystitis in men at home:

  1. Antibiotics. After identifying the type of bacteria that have settled on the tissues of the bladder, antibiotics are prescribed. It is important to choose the right active substance that can fight against multiplying microbes and this should be done exclusively by a specialist.
  2. Bed rest during the acute period of the disease, the use of antipyretics, the consumption of a large amount of fluid (up to 2.5 liters per day), dieting in the absence of acidic, acute and salty in the diet.
  3. Painkillers. Antispasmodics are used, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  4. Treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. Often it is such infections that cause the development of cystitis in men. If you do not stop their development, then measures to combat inflammation of the bladder will be useless. For each STI, there is a specific treatment regimen that the doctor chooses.
  5. Herbal medicine. Diuretic and anti-inflammatory herbal remedies are effective against cystitis. Herbal teas (bearberry, horsetail, lingonberry leaf) will be useful in this disease. Such drugs as Kanefron, Cyston and Fitolizin, have a supportive effect, help relieve inflammation. Keep in mind the possibility of an allergic reaction to herbs. Cranberry juice or fruit drink will be useful, Monurel tablets containing cranberry extract are effective. Such drugs reduce the concentration of the antibiotic, so you can use them at the end of the course of treatment.
  6. Washing the bladder. The procedure is carried out using special solutions of antiseptic action.
  7. Physiotherapy. At the end of the acute period of the disease, in order to accelerate the recovery of the body and resorption, ultrasound procedures, UHF, mud therapy, magnetolaser therapy, electrophoresis are used.

The treatment of cystitis in men in each case is selected according to a certain scheme based on the causes of inflammation, concomitant diseases, and the general condition of the patient's body.

Complications

The most serious consequences of cystitis are the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux (when urine is thrown back from the bladder back into the ureters) and pyelonephritis.

Severe forms of cystitis (for example, gangrenous) can lead to the appearance of fistulas and inflammation of the near-bubble tissue. Inflammation in the area of ​​sphincters of the bladder is sometimes accompanied by acute urinary retention.

Chronic cystitis in men

The chronic form, in comparison with the acute, is characterized by the appearance of less pronounced clinical symptoms. For chronic cystitis, the following is characteristic:

  • mild soreness,
  • minor urination disorders,
  • normal general health.

Chronic cystitis is of three types:

  • asymptomatic
  • persistent
  • interstitial.

The latent form is not accompanied by symptoms at all, and it can be detected by changes in the analysis of urine. Latent cystitis is characterized by rare periods of exacerbation. Persistent cystitis worsens several times a year.

But if we are talking about interstitial cystitis, then it is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination of a constant nature,
  • persistent and persistent pain in the suprapubic zone,
  • depression, irritability, anxiety.

Cystitis can be a complication of tuberculosis

Infectious cystitis caused by trichomonads, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, gonococci, Koch sticks is called specific. A non-specific cystitis is a disease caused by opportunistic bacteria that constantly live in the body.

Infrequent varieties of cystitis are those that are caused by purpura, actinomycosis, and schistosomiasis.

The path by which pathogens enter the bladder can be different. Depending on it, cystitis is divided into descending, ascending, lymphogenous and hematogenous. The upward variant of infection (from the urethra) in male patients is quite rare. Cystitis in men is most often descending (in case of kidney infection), as well as hematogenous and lymphogenous.

There are also non-infectious cystitis. They can be caused by:

  • operations or diagnostic procedures on the bladder,
  • radiation exposure to the body, for example, during radiation therapy of the prostate gland,
  • injuries of the bladder by foreign bodies, such as stones,
  • chemicals excreted in the urine and causing irritation of the mucous membrane of the bladder.

Also, cystitis is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, the disease begins on its own, directly in the bladder.In the second - cystitis is caused by some other pathological processes in the body.

Secondary cystitis, in turn, is divided into cystitis of intravesical and extravesical origin. For example, stones in the bladder and neoplasms of this organ are intravesical causes, and diseases of other organs (prostate adenoma, pyelonephritis) are extravesical.

If the area of ​​inflammation is the bladder triangle, then such cystitis is called trigonitis. Also, depending on the location of the inflammation, cervical and diffuse cystitis are isolated. With cervical cystitis, only inflammation is observed on the neck of the bladder. The diffuse form of the disease manifests itself in inflammation of the entire organ wall.

Depending on how badly the bladder wall is affected, the following forms of cystitis are distinguished:

  • catarrhal
  • hemorrhagic
  • cystic
  • ulcerative
  • phlegmonous
  • gangrenous.

The easiest form, affecting only the surface layers of the walls, is catarrhal. With a gangrenous form, the pathological process leads to necrotization of the walls. To determine the degree of the disease, cystoscopy is used followed by a biopsy.

Factors contributing to the appearance of cystitis in men:

  • body hypothermia,
  • decreased immunity,
  • stress
  • deliberate urinary retention, rare emptying of the bladder,
  • kidney disease, prostate,
  • non-observance of personal hygiene rules,
  • diseases accompanied by the occurrence of foci of infection (tonsillitis, sinusitis, furunculosis, dental diseases, etc.),
  • spinal injuries
  • diabetes,
  • alcohol abuse.

Complications of cystitis can be paracystitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the bladder), pyelonephritis, sclerosis of the walls of the bladder, perforation of the walls of the bladder, inflammation of the kidneys (as a result of vesicoureteral reflux).

Primary and secondary cystitis

By the nature of the occurrence of cystitis is:

Primary cystitis occurs on its own and is not associated with any other disease. Among the primary cystitis, in turn, the following types are distinguished:

  • acute cystitis (infectious, chemical, medicinal, toxic, thermal, neurogenic, alimentary),
  • chronic cystitis (infectious, inlaid, radiation, ulcerative neurotrophic, post-traumatic, involutional, etc.),
  • parasitic.

Secondary inflammation develops due to some other disease. Secondary cystitis are:

  • cystic origin (e.g., stones, foreign bodies, traumatic injuries, tumors, developmental abnormalities, bladder surgery),
  • extra-bubble origin (prostate adenoma, diseases and injuries of the spine, prostatitis, urethral stricture, etc.).

Symptoms of Chronic Cystitis

The symptomatic picture in chronic cystitis is not as bright as in the acute type of pathology.

A man is emptied more often than usual, but a critical moment in the frequency of emptying is not achieved, which does not prevent a sick person from doing his daily work.

During the acute course of chronic cystitis, the symptoms resemble the acute type of the disease, with the transition of inflammation into remission, the symptoms weaken or disappear completely.

The course of the chronic form of the disease proceeds according to several options:

  • undulating, when the acute stage is replaced by remission, and so on in a cycle,
  • continuous, in which periods of remission are not very pronounced,
  • asymptomatic - in the complete absence of pronounced signs.

The forms of the chronic type also differ:

  1. Ulcerative
  2. Purulent necrotic,
  3. Fibrous
  4. Hemorrhagic, etc.

Monural Antibiotic Treatment

To quickly cope with cystitis, a single dose of a powerful antibacterial agent - Fosfomycin trometamol (trade name - Monural).

It is considered a first-line drug. The main causative agent of the disease has the highest susceptibility to this medicine. 1 dose (3 g) creates in the urine a concentration high enough for the complete destruction of bacteria for 80 hours. Fosfomycin is one of the safest drugs, although with caution, it is prescribed to expectant mothers and women during lactation.

Important: it should be noted that in our country Monural has been used for 10 years, therefore, the formation of resistance to it of Escherichia coli strains is possible. Cases have already been recorded when patients who have taken this drug once go to the doctor again. Increasingly, not 1, but 2 doses of the drug are prescribed, which must be taken with a difference of 24 hours.

Treatment of cystitis in men

When symptoms of cystitis have been detected, a man should begin treatment with certain medications, mainly antibiotics. They are appointed only by a specialist.

The general treatment regimen for cystitis in men includes:

  1. You need to drink plenty of fluids, up to three liters per day. Lying more. The diet is banned for salty, sour and spicy. If there is a temperature, take antipyretic drugs.
  2. Antibiotics. Assign after the selection of the pathogen and the establishment of its sensitivity to drugs. Usually these are tablets: nitrofurans (Furadonin), fluoroquinolones (Normax, Tsiprolet A, Nolitsin), cephalosporins.
  3. Herbal medicine. Mandatory for cystitis in men, treatment should include herbal diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs, such as herbal teas - bearberry tea, lingonberry leaf, field horsetail.
    Painkillers. Antispasmodics (Papaverine, No-Shpa) and NSAIDs (Nimesil, Diclofenac) effectively relieve pain.
  4. If STI is detected, appropriate medications are prescribed.
  5. Symptoms and treatment of cystitis depend on concomitant diseases, which are most often - prostatitis, pyelonephritis, prostate adenoma, urolithiasis, adenomectomy.
  6. Washing the bladder. Sometimes the patient is given this procedure with a special solution with antiseptics. This helps to destroy pathogenic bacteria inside the bladder faster.
  7. Physiotherapy. After the end of the acute period of inflammation, for resorption and a speedy recovery, electrophoresis, UHF, ultrasound, magnetic laser therapy, and mud therapy are performed.

Acute cystitis is treated with antibacterial drugs at home prescribed by a doctor. Also, such patients are recommended bed rest, a special diet and plenty of drinking.

Treatment of a chronic form is more difficult; physiotherapeutic procedures and local antiseptic instillations are indispensable here. In this case, the therapy is aimed at improving the passage of urine and preventing reflux.

WHAT DO THE DOCTOR'S SAY?

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation and Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Anton Vasiliev:

“I have been treating diseases of the genitourinary system for many years. According to statistics from the Ministry of Health, cystitis in 60% of cases becomes chronic.

The main mistake is tightening! The sooner you begin treatment for cystitis, the better. There is a tool that is recommended for self-treatment and prevention of cystitis at home, since many patients do not seek help because of a lack of time or shame. This is Ureferon. It is the most versatile. It has no synthetic components, its effect is soft, but palpable after the first day of administration. It relieves inflammation, strengthens the walls of the bladder, its mucosa, restores general immunity. It suits both women and men. For men, there will also be a pleasant bonus - increased potency. "

The most serious complication of cystitis is the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux. The essence of this pathological process is the throwing of urine from the bladder back into the ureters. In addition, the infectious process can spread along the ascending path, leading to the appearance of pyelonephritis. And inflammation of the sphincter of the bladder causes acute urinary retention.

Cervical and diffuse cystitis

Depending on which part of the bladder is inflamed, the following types of cystitis are distinguished:

  • cervical cystitis (only the neck of the bladder is inflamed),
  • trigonitis (an inflamed vesical triangle limited by the mouth of the ureter and the opening of the urethra)
  • diffuse cystitis (the wall of the bladder is involved in the process of inflammation).

With cervical cystitis, sphincters of the bladder become inflamed, which is manifested by painful urination and urinary incontinence. Other symptoms include frequent urination.

With trigonitis, inflammation affects not only the sphincters of the bladder, but also the mouth of the ureter, which is fraught with the occurrence of a complication such as vesicoureteral reflux (urine is thrown back into the ureter and can reach the kidneys, causing the development of pyelonephritis and congestion). Trigonitis is characterized by disorders of urination, the presence of blood and pus in the urine.

Diffuse cystitis is characterized by total inflammation of the mucosa and typical symptoms, which will be discussed below.

Bacterial cystitis

There is no specific type of bacteria that affects the walls of the bladder. Among the causative bacterial agents may be microflora of the respiratory, intestinal types or conditionally pathogenic prokaryotes.

Bacteria can enter the affected organ in five ways:

  1. Ascending current (from the urethra),
  2. Downward current (from above lying organs of the urinary system),
  3. Hematogenous path (blood flow from other systems and organs),
  4. Lymphatic way
  5. Instrumental (catheterization or cystoscopy).

The most “popular” in detecting a pathological inflammatory process is an intestinal gram-negative bacterium.

Symptoms of bacterial cystitis in a man will manifest depending on the route of introduction of the bacteria.

When the agent is introduced from the ascending pathway, cystitis will be preceded by urethritis, with a diametrical change in the direction of introduction, bacterial kidney diseases (pyelonephritis, etc.).

Normally, the urine of a healthy person does not contain any microorganisms. A urinalysis with cystitis often shows more than one type of prokaryotes that initiate the disease.

With a bacterial chronic type of pathology, a violation of the activity of the kidneys with dangerous consequences - pyelonephritis is often accompanied.

Permanent companions of bacterial cystitis in men are the uniform blood elements present in urine, bacteria and free white blood cells.

If high temperature joins the specified signs, severe renal pathologies are not excluded.

A non-bacterial type of pathology can be both infectious and non-infectious.

Modern urologists distinguish a third form of cystitis - interstitial, which has not received proper scientific study. Diagnostic methods for its determination are cystoscopic and hydrodistensious.

The examination reveals a destroyed mucosa with ulcers and hemorrhagic outpourings on the organ wall.

Antibiotics

The main drug is an antibiotic, because in most cases, cystitis is caused precisely by the bacterial flora. The groups of antibiotics that penetrate the mucous membrane of the bladder are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins.

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics:

  • lomefloxacin,
  • gatifloxacin,
  • ofloxacin
  • ciprofloxacin.

Herbal medicines:

It is also important to follow a diet that will prevent the aggressive environment of urine.

Nutrition

The diet for this disease should be gentle and include products that primarily have a diuretic effect - watermelon, melon, pumpkin, cucumbers, cranberries and other plant foods. It is also allowed to consume milk, cottage cheese, unsalted cheese, bran, whole grain bread, cereals. A very important role is played by copious (approximately 2-2.5 liters per day) drinking.

It is strictly forbidden during the illness period to drink alcohol, salty, fatty, spicy, fried foods, fast food, as well as sour fruits and berries (with the exception of cranberries).

Medications for the treatment of male cystitis

Drug therapy can be etiotropic, or symptomatic. Etiotropic therapy is aimed at counteracting pathogens - pathogens. The goal of symptomatic treatment is to relieve unpleasant symptoms - pain and spasm.

If the cause of the disease is a bacterial infection, then a course of taking antibiotics is necessary. The most commonly used drugs are fluoroquinolones (such as lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin), nitrofurans, cephalosporins, and less commonly, penicillins. The duration of admission is usually a week.

Before choosing an antibiotic regimen, it is necessary to conduct a study on the type of pathogen and its resistance to antibiotics.

Often, drugs with herbal anti-inflammatory and antibacterial components are also used, such as Kanefron, Fitolizin, Monurel, Urokam, Uroflux, Urolesan, Cyston, bearberry grass, decoction of horsetail and St. John's wort.

Another class of drugs used for the disease is antispasmodics (papaverine, drotaverine), which help relieve spasms and the pain syndrome caused by it. NSAIDs are also used to reduce the symptoms of pain and inflammation. For severe pain, novocaine blockades are used. It is also recommended to take vitamins - to increase the body's resistance to infection.

Types of medicines used for cystitis

A typeAppointmentExamples
AntibioticsFighting a bacterial infectionciprofloxacin, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, tetracycline
Herbal preparationsThe fight against inflammation, antiseptic effectMonurel, Canefron
Antispasmodicsreduction in pain and crampingdrotaverine
NSAIDsfight against pain and inflammationIbuprofen

Catarrhal and ulcerative

Depending on how the mucous membrane and the underlying structures change, the following types of inflammation are distinguished with cystitis:

  • catarrhal - the mucosa is simply hyperemic,
  • hemorrhagic - hemorrhages are observed,
  • cystic - inflammation is accompanied by the appearance of cysts,
  • ulcerative - ulcers appear on the mucous membrane,
  • phlegmonous - with the presence of a large amount of pus,
  • gangrenous - necrosis of the bladder tissue is observed,
  • other species (e.g., inlaid, interstitial, granulomatous).

The type of inflammation with cystitis depends on the properties of the pathogen itself and the state of the body's defenses. With catarrhal cystitis, changes in the mucous membrane are minimal compared with other forms. One or another type of inflammation can be determined only by the endoscopic method (for example, with cystoscopy) followed by a biopsy.

Acute cystitis

The leading manifestations of acute cystitis are frequent urination (including nocturia), imperative urges, difficulty and painful urination (stranguria), terminal hematuria, clouding of urine. Concomitant symptoms may be fever and chills, decreased ability to work. Pain during urination, especially in its initial and final stages, is accompanied by pain and burning in the urethra. Outside the miktsia, pain is felt in the suprapubic region, groin, scrotum, penis.

The volume of a single portion of urine is reduced to 10-20 ml, in some cases, the development of urinary incontinence is possible. Typical signs of the disease are leukocyturia and pyuria, microscopic or macroscopic hematuria. In severe forms of cystitis (hemorrhagic, phlegmonous, gangrenous), intoxication develops due to high body temperature, oliguria.Urine has a cloudy color, putrefactive odor, contains impurities of blood, fibrin, and layers of the rejected mucous membrane.

Infectious and non-infectious cystitis

In addition to bacteria, viruses, fungi, chlamydia of various biological classification can invade the urinary tract.

A non-bacterial form is cystitis with tuberculosis infection.

Although the cause of tuberculosis is the activation of Koch's bacillus, which is a bacterium, there is no direct effect on the condition of the bladder mucosa. Among patients with tuberculosis, one fifth found inflammation of the mucous organ.

Non-infectious cystitis in men manifests itself in the form of radiation, chemical, sterile and autoimmune forms. Radiation is a consequence of radiological exposure to cancer patients.

Cystitis in men in such cases is one of the consequences of radiology due to the high sensitivity of the mucous membrane to radionuclides.

In the chronic course of autoimmune diseases, acute cystitis is an unpleasant complication of Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other pathologies.

A sterile hypersensitive type of disease develops in response to irritating substances present in foods: alcohol, chocolate products, etc.

The sterile forms of cystitis are considered to be inflammatory reactions of the bladder mucosa under the influence of dirty water in stagnant water bodies, adenocarcinomas, helminthic invasions, liver pathologies, and simple microorganisms.

Cystitis in men and women was detected after the flu, herpes, adenovirus diseases. The AIDS virus also has an inflammatory effect on the mucous membrane of the organ.

Fungal pathology is considered the penetration of a microscopic fungus along with a medical catheter or a consequence of a transferred thrush.

Chlamydia does not directly participate in the inflammatory processes of the mucosa, but their action leads to the activation of another microflora that can cause inflammation.

Prevention

The fact that men are relatively rarely ill with cystitis does not mean that representatives of a strong half of humanity should not keep in mind the possibility of this disease, not only very unpleasant and markedly reducing the quality of life, but also potentially fatal in the absence of proper treatment (from gangrenous cystitis died , for example, the Russian emperor Peter I). However, preventative measures are simple - you need to monitor personal hygiene, immunity, avoid hypothermia, regularly go to the toilet, avoid stagnation of urine, heal infectious diseases that can create foci of infection - sinusitis, pulpitis and tonsillitis, regularly visit a urologist and andrologist.

Rarely encountered forms of cystitis

The rare forms of cystitis include:

  • cystitis with urogenital schistosomiasis (bilharziosis),
  • actinomycosis (damage to the bladder with an appropriate fungus),
  • malacoplakia - the appearance of many plaques and growths on the mucous membrane of the bladder (and some other organs), accompanied by inflammatory reactions,
  • cystitis that occurs with purpura.

Possible complications

One of the unfavorable complications of cystitis is uretero-cystic reflux, when the urine begins to reverse into the ureters and kidneys, causing a dangerous renal pathology - pyelonephritis.

With localization of inflammation in the area of ​​the sphincter of the bladder, it causes a delay or lack of urination.

Gangrenous cystitis is the cause of inflammation of the tissue localized in the bladder. The consequences of inflammation of the fistula are not ruled out.

Which doctor are you contacting?

With suspected cystitis, the patient should pay a visit to the urologist in order to confirm his assumptions and prescribe treatment.

The doctor in the initial diagnostic stage conducts a visual examination of the genitals, if necessary, palpates the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity.

For further confirmation of the diagnosis, it will be necessary to pass urine for analysis, from which one part is subjected to culture for differentiation of bacteria, the other for visual and microscopic examination for the presence of blood cells (leukocytes and red blood cells), mucus, sperm and a general chemical analysis.

Urine is also analyzed by the Nechiporenko method, according to which only uniform blood elements are detected per unit volume.

The urologist may also suggest to monitor the process of urination visually, this method is called the study of passage of urine. In order to exclude renal diseases, an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs is performed.

The urologist can send for an additional examination of the urethra and bladder with instrumental methods (cystography, uroflowmetry, cystoscopy and urodynamic examination) and in the form of a smear.

Alternative treatment of cystitis in men

Alternative methods are used with the permission of a doctor. Self-medication will seriously harm your health. Alternative treatment is more likely an auxiliary therapy, it will help relieve unpleasant symptoms, but it does not affect the cause of cystitis.

We highlight the most popular methods of treating inflammation of the bladder:

  • You will need such ingredients: St. John's wort, knotweed, parsley, dill, thyme. All these components are taken in equal proportions and thoroughly mixed. Half a liter of boiling water is enough for one tablespoon of herbal harvest. After the remedy is infused, it is filtered and drunk during the day for three days,
  • take such components: bear ears, corn stigmas, St. John's wort. The preparation is prepared in the same way, only it is enough to consume two tablespoons three times a day. The treatment is carried out no more than one week,
  • one more recipe for preparing a decoction for oral administration, only in this case you will need such ingredients: meadowsweet, lingonberry leaves, dogrose, eucalyptus, St. John's wort, echinacea. Use filtered broth for three times,
  • to achieve a diuretic effect, you will need the following: a glass of water, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and honey. You should use the drug on an empty stomach for a month,
  • to warm the bladder, a compress is made on the abdomen. To do this, you need to take: calendula, onion husk, crushed potatoes or chamomile. The compress is applied down the abdomen in a warm form.

Treatment of cystitis at home

In order to cure cystitis at home, complex measures will be required. It should be prepared for the fact that the acute process is treated much more painfully than the chronic one. Consider a phased cure for cystitis at home:

  1. Bed rest, diet and heavy drinking.
  2. Drug treatment. This primarily includes the fight against etiological factors.
  3. Thermal treatments. The bathtubs are made on the basis of chamomile or St. John's wort. For one liter of water, several tablespoons of grass are enough.

At home, herbs based drugs can be used to combat cystitis:

  • Kanefron. The composition of the drug includes centaury, lovage, rosemary leaves. The tool has pronounced antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and vasodilating properties. Kanefron is available in various dosage forms: drops, dragees, tablets. The drug is prescribed with caution to allergy sufferers,
  • Monurel. The composition of the product includes ascorbic acid and cranberry. Monurel increases the body's resistance to infections and inhibits the reproduction of E. coli. Monurel is often part of the treatment of recurrent cystitis,
  • Cyston. This is a multicomponent preparation, which includes a number of components: extract of bicardium, saxifrage, madder, syt, strawflower, mummy powder. Cyston is prescribed two tablets three times a day for three months.

Despite the fact that cystitis is rare in men, insufficient adherence to intimate hygiene can easily lead to an inflammatory process. Sometimes even chronic stress or hypothermia can serve as a trigger for pathology.

Due to the fact that sometimes cystitis is asymptomatic, preventive examinations are of great importance. An early visit to a doctor is the key to your health, in the early stages of the disease amenable to treatment and it is easy to defeat!

Forecast and Prevention

With the timely start of treatment, the prognosis for acute cystitis is favorable. In chronic inflammation, there is a risk of relapse. Observance of intimate hygiene, prevention of STDs, exclusion of stress factors and hypothermia, timely treatment of diseases of the male genital area, pyelonephritis, and sanitation of purulent foci allow preventing the development of the disease. When performing endovascular studies and manipulations, careful observance of asepsis, advance antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary.

Hospital treatment

A hospital regimen means compliance with all the proposed conditions for the patient, taking the medications mentioned above and following the procedures.

If the doctor considers it necessary to undergo radical treatment, there is an urgent need.

Primitive physiotherapeutic procedures for patients:

  • applying therapeutic mud,
  • electrophoresis
  • magnetotherapy
  • Ultrasound - procedures,
  • inductothermy.

If pathologies accompanying cystitis (pyelonephritis, prostatitis, adenocarcinoma, urolithiasis, etc.) are detected, the therapeutic method should be treated in several directions.

Polyps, adenocarcinomas on the walls of the organ, which caused cystitis, are removed by trasurethral resection (TUR).

Urologist examination

Preliminary diagnosis is based on patient complaints, as well as data from a urological examination, including examination and palpation of the external genital organs and a digital examination of the prostate through the wall of the rectum. Already at this stage, it becomes clear whether cystitis is associated with the presence of adenoma, prostatitis, orchoepididymitis or not.

After that, the doctor will prescribe an additional laboratory and instrumental examination, which allows to identify the pathogen and clarify the nature of the inflammation.

What antibiotics to take?

A man starting treatment for cystitis must observe 3 components of the treatment so that the healing process is effective:

  • taking antibiotics and other medications,
  • daily dietary review
  • implementation of recommendations about bed rest.

The main strategic impetus for the decline in symptoms and inflammatory processes is antibiotics.

The doctor will be able to correctly prescribe an antibiotic when using bacterial culture of urine and a smear from the urethra. Detected microflora will be eliminated by a certain kind of antibacterial agent.

More often than others, they are effective in treating male cystitis (a list of antibiotics is presented in the direction of rising prices):

  • FURADONIN. Effective in the development of various pathogenic bacteria in the bladder (about 50 rubles),
  • NITROXOLINE. It has a broad inhibitory effect in relation to urethral, ​​renal bacteria and prokaryotic inhabitants (55-65 rubles),
  • NOLICINE. With analogues (Ofloxacin, Normax, etc.), like Nitroxoline has a universal effect on the pathogenic microflora of the urinary tract (a little more than 100 rubles),
  • PALIN. It has a specific effect of inhibition in relation to microflora sensitive to pipemidic acid (about 200 rubles),
  • MONURAL. Suitable for eliminating the causes and symptoms of the acute form of cystitis, chronic forms of the disease require the selection of another antibiotic (about 350 rubles),
  • RULID - an antibacterial agent in the treatment of all urinary infections (at least 750 rubles),
  • NEVIGRAMON is an improved antibiotic with a high concentration of active substances (approximately 2 thousand rubles).

A patient with cystitis as part of a comprehensive treatment should receive funds to eliminate the inflammatory process, herbal preparations with antispasmodic and analgesic effects (Kanefron), drugs to lower body temperature, vitamin and mineral complex to increase the body's immune forces.

The effectiveness of the treatment process is increased by using physiotherapeutic techniques (ultrasound, laser therapy, the use of therapeutic mud, electrophoresis, magnetotherapy).

Sometimes novocaine blockade of the bladder or rinsing with an antiseptic solution are the only treatment methods.

READ ON THE TOPIC: List of antibiotics for cystitis and their analogues, instructions for use, dosage.

Laboratory research

1. Urinalysis. For cystitis, the following changes in urine are characteristic:

  • increase in white blood cells (leukocyturia),
  • the presence of blood (hematuria),
  • in some cases, mucus, desquamated epithelial cells, bacteria, protozoa.

2. Complete blood count. The blood picture will reflect the severity of the course of cystitis and some of its features (for example, an increase in eosinophils with allergic cystitis, an increase in ESR, leukocytosis in the event of a fever).

3. Bacteriological culture of the contents of the urethra and urine. With the help of this study, the causative agent of cystitis is detected and its sensitivity to antibiotics is determined.

4. PCR-study. It is prescribed for suspected genital infections. Scraping is done for the same purpose.

A more comprehensive and in-depth study may include an immunogram, a biochemical blood test (urea, creatinine, electrolyte composition), the level of prostate-specific antigen, etc.

Instrumental research

To clarify the cause of cystitis, men are prescribed:

  • uroflowmetry,
  • comprehensive urodynamic examination,
  • cystoscopy,
  • Ultrasound of the prostate, kidney,
  • cystography.

Ultrasound of the bladder during an exacerbation of chronic or acute cystitis is not performed due to the impossibility of maximum urine filling of this organ during this period.

Special diet for cystitis

When the patient follows the rules of dietary nutrition during cystitis in men, it significantly shortens the period of recovery and facilitates the process of fighting the body against infection.

To do this, it is recommended:

  • plentiful drink. In addition to clean water (at least 2 liters per day), it is advisable to consume more liquid foods (soups, juices, fruit drinks, jelly, tea, etc.). Only alcohol and coffee should be limited to the treatment period,
  • among vegetables choose foods with a diuretic effect: cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, watermelons,
  • be sure to include dairy products in the daily diet,
  • sweet bakery products and white bread will have to be postponed for the duration of the treatment, replace these products with grades of whole-grain bread,
  • spicy, spicy and pickled foods during cystitis are prohibited; instead, diversify the menu with oat, buckwheat and millet cereals, dried fruits,
  • sour, fatty and fried foods also delay the healing process,
  • meat and fish products are best consumed in boiled and steamed form,
  • pay attention to high protein foods: eggs, cottage cheese,
  • include squids, seaweed, sea fish,
  • get daily cranberry consumption (the only permitted acidic product),
  • remove fast foods, foods with preservatives, emulsifiers, disintegrants, flavor enhancers and other chemical additives from the daily diet,
  • at the time of treatment (and after) it is imperative to include bran or products containing them in the daily diet.

The exact set of products during recovery will depend on the acid-base balance of urine. Patients with alkaline urine are advised to “lean” more on cereals, meat, eggs.

Sour urine changes the balance with the exclusion of egg and meat products and normalizes when sweets prevail in food (fruits and vegetables, fermented milk products).

The detection of oxalates requires the exclusion of brightly colored fruits and berries (blueberries, blackberries, blueberries, grapes), herbs, cocoa and beans.

Features of the treatment of certain forms of cystitis

  1. Tuberculous cystitis. In addition to anti-TB drugs, instillations of sterile fish oil, saluside, PASK are prescribed.
  2. Radiation cystitis. Local treatment is supplemented by instillations of healing stimulants. If large areas of the mucosa are affected, plastic surgery is performed.
  3. Interstitial cystitis. Among other things, treatment is supplemented by the appointment of instillations of hormonal drugs, antibacterial and painkillers. Inside, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs can be prescribed.

Phytotherapy

Charges are widely used for the treatment of cystitis, which may include the following plants: calamus root, St. John's wort, lemon balm, kidney tea, knotweed, bearberry, fennel, nettle, chamomile, wild rosemary, field horsetail, corn stigmas, birch buds, flax, oregano, eucalyptus and some others.

The course of treatment of chronic cystitis is up to 1.5 years, alternating phyto-harvesting with each other every 2 months.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that cystitis is relatively rare in men, it must be remembered that after 40 years the situation may change due to the occurrence of prostatitis, prostate adenoma or prostate cancer.

Due to the fact that cystitis can be completely asymptomatic for a long time, it is necessary to regularly undergo professional examinations, including taking a general urine test.

In most cases, in the early stages, cystitis can be treated well and can be defeated.

Watch the video: Bladder infection - Causes and treatment (April 2020).